Publications Evolution of multicellularity, bet hedging and microbial cooperation Publications (Google Scholar link) Submitted / In Revision Herron, M. and W.C. Ratcliff. Trait heritability in major transitions. BioRxiv link. Libby, E., and W.C. Ratcliff. Time-dependent fitness effects can drive bet-hedging populations extinct. BioRxiv link. Libby, E., W.W. Driscoll and W.C. Ratcliff. Programmed cell death can improve the efficacy of microbial bet hedging. BioRxiv link. Rebolleda-Gomez, M., W.C. Ratcliff, J. Fankhauser, and M. Travisano. Multicellularity as a key trait facilitating adaptive radiation. BioRxiv link. 2017 McNally, L., E. Bernardy, J. Thomas, A. Kalziqi, J.T. Pentz, S. Brown, B. Hammer, P. Yunker and W.C. Ratcliff. 2017. Killing by Type VI secretion drives clonal phase separation and correlates with cooperation. Nature Communications 14371. Open access link. 2016 Weitz, J.S., S.P. Brown, C. Eskin, K. Paarporn, and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Replicator dynamics with feedback-evolving games: towards a co-evolutionary game theory. PNAS. 11: 47. E7518–E7525. Link. Libby, E., P. Conlin, B. Kerr and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Stabilizing multicellularity through ratcheting. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 331:20150444. Open access link. Conlin, P. and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Trade-offs drive the evolution of increased complexity in nascent multicellular digital organisms. In Multicellularity: Origins and Evolution. Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology. Download. Pentz, J., B. Taylor and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Apoptosis in snowflake yeast: novel trait, or side effect of toxic waste? Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 118: 20160121. Link. 2015 Pentz, J.T., T. Limberg, N. Beerman, and W.C. Ratcliff. 2015. Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8:13. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., Fankhauser, J.F., Rogers, D., Greig, D. and Travisano, M. 2015. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast. Nature Communications 6: 6102. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., P. Hawthorne, and E. Libby. 2015. Courting disaster: how diversification mode affects fitness under risk. Evolution 69: 126-135. Download. 2014 Libby, E. and W.C. Ratcliff. 2014. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science 346 (6208), 426-427. Download. Libby, E., W.C. Ratcliff, M. Travisano and B. Kerr. 2014. Geometry shapes evolution of early multicellularity. PLoS Computational Biology 10 (9:e1003803), 1-12. Download. Pentz, J.T., M. Travisano and W.C. Ratcliff. 2014. Clonal development is evolutionarily superior to aggregation in wild- collected Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, 550-554. Download. Ratcliff, W.C. and M. Travisano. 2014. Experimental evolution of multicellular complexity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BioScience, 64 (5), 383-393. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., A. Raney, S. Westreich, and S. Cotner. 2014. A novel laboratory activity for teaching about the evolution of multicellularity. The American Biology Teacher 76 (2), 81-87. Download. 2013 Ratcliff, W.C., M. Herron, K. Howell, J. Pentz, F. Rosenzweig, and M. Travisano. 2013. Experimental evolution of an alternating uni- and multicellular life cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nature Communications, 4: 2742. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., M. Hoverman, M. Travisano. and R. F. Denison. 2013. Disentangling direct and indirect fitness effects of microbial dormancy. The American Naturalist, 182:147-156. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., J.T. Pentz, and M. Travisano. 2013. Tempo and mode of multicellular adaptation in experimentally-evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evolution, 67: 1573–1581. doi: 10.1111/evo.12101. Download. 2012 E.T. Kiers, W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. 2012. Single strain inoculation may creates spurious correlations between legume fitness and rhizobial fitness. New Phytologist, 198: 4-6. DOI: 10.1111/nph.12015 Download. Rebolleda-Gomez, M, W.C. Ratcliff and M. Travisano. 2012. Adaptation and divergence during experimental evolution of multicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiaeProceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, 99-104. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., R. F. Denison, M. Borrello and M. Travisano. 2012. Experimental evolution of multicellularity. PNAS, 109:5, 1595-1600. Open Access Link 2011 Ratcliff, W.C., K. Underbakke and R. F. Denison. 2011. Measuring the fitness of symbiotic rhizobia. Symbiosis, 55:2, 85- 90.  Download. Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2011. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science, 332:6029, 547-548.  Download 2010 Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2010. Individual-level bet hedging in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Current Biology  20:1740-1744. Open Access link. See commentary by Zhang X.X. and P.B. Rainey. 2010: “Bet hedging in the underworld”.  Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2010. Bacterial persistence and bet hedging in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Communicative & Integrative Biology 4:1, 1-3. Open Access link. 2009 Ratcliff W. C., P. Hawthorne, M. Travisano, and R. F. Denison. 2009. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity. PLoS One, 4:e6055.  Open Access link Ratcliff W. C. and R. F. Denison. 2009. Rhizobitoxine producers gain more poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in symbiosis than do competing rhizobia, but reduce plant growth. The ISME Journal, 3:870-872.  Download 2008 Ratcliff W. C., S. V. Kadam, and R. F. Denison. 2008. Polyhydroxybutyrate supports survival and reproduction in starving rhizobia. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 65:391-399.  Download We are extremely grateful to the National Science Foundation, NASA Exobiology, the Packard Foundation, the Keck Foundation, and the Simons Foundation for supporting our research!